Scout Moor – Guide to Medieval and other Related Documents

Do Scout Moor archaeological surveys, as with the adjacent Rooley Moor surveys, omit medieval documentation?

There is so much in the public domain for Rooley Moor, yet two surveys failed to mention the large number of medieval charters.

Will we find medieval documentation omissions in the Scout Moor archaeological survey?

This post will outline the medieval documentation for the area known as Scout Moor. In a later post I will see how much of this data was used in the Scout Moor archaeological survey. Since later surveys adjacent to Scout Moor still omitted basic medieval sources (The Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey for example) there is lottle chance of a thorough survey of this area, since they rely on the same woefully lacking and outdated HER.

There are certainly glaring omissions when it comes to archaeological sites too, which will be detailed in a separate archaeology post.

Related Histories

Good outlines of the major historical events/sources for the area, but out of date when compared to contemporary historical analysis.

Parish of Rochdale – Retrieved from British History Online

History of the Parish of Rochdale – Retrieved from Touchstone’s site.

1610 Manor Survey of Rochdale (Touchstones site).

1626 Manor Survey of Rochdale.

History of the Forest of Rossendale – 1893, Thomas Newbigging

The Economic History of Rossendale – G. H. Tupling, M.A. (Manchester University, Economic History Series, no.4, and Chetham Society).

Spring Hill History Website – with comments and notes on the ‘Economic History of Rossendale’.

Archives with original documents

British Library – Spotland (Historical Rochdale township in which most of Scout Moor was in).

Chethams Library – inclding the Raines Collection (Contains a lot of Rochdale area material).

Rylands Library – contains original documents relating to the area

Whalley Abbey – Coucher Book, includes hundreds of medieval abbey charters relating to Rochdale and Bury.

Maps

First Series 19th Century Ordnance Survey Maps – Good details, such as old farmsteads, minor place-names and land use.

Place-names

EkwallThe place-names of Lancashire – seminal work for Lancashire place-names but a little outdated.

The Place Names of Lancashire – David Mills, 1977

Under construction…

Published in: on January 3, 2016 at 6:07 pm  Comments (1)  
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The Hearth Tax

Although levied in the 17th Century and after the Medieval period the hearth tax is an important resource for Medieval population estimates and detailed settlement information. The hearth tax can be a way of judging the size of a house or old hall. It is a vital layer for any archaeological/historical GIS (Graphical Information System).

Example

Naden Head, Spotland township, Rochdale Parish, In the Hearth Tax it was assessed for 6 hearths. Evidently a substantial house and was called a “Capital Messuage” in the 1626 Rochdale Manor Survey and was claimed as the “Manor of Spotland” by a member of the Holt family.

So a 2012 archaeological survey’s claim that Naden Head was just a “farmstead” appears hard to support.

Rochdale 1666 Hearth Tax Summary

Hearth_Tax_1666

Note

Comprehensive Hearth Tax Lancashire map and county survey under construction.

The Hearth Tax Website can be found here.

Published in: on March 16, 2014 at 1:50 pm  Comments (3)  
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Naden

Naden is the name of a valley in what was Spotland township, Rochdale parish. Naden was first recorded in 1107, it was also mentioned in the Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey in the 13thC.

A general history of Spotland with a footnote (6) about Naden can be found here in the Victoria County History of Lancashire.

Naden Brook

Naden (“Nauden” as it was in medieval times)was mentioned in a grant to Stanlaw Abbey (the monks later moved to Whalley).

NadenRiverStanlawHere is another reference to Naden (Naueden) in the transcription of the Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey, Chetham Society. Green Booths is also mentioned.

“de Naden” Origin of the Name

According to this history (Victoria County History), land was granted to Gilbert de Notton when he married Margery, the daughter of Hugh de Elland.

It gave a name to the immediate holders. Maud widow of Thomas de Naden claimed dower in a messuage and land in Wolstenholme in 1277 against Roger son of Robert de Naden; De Banco R. 21, m. 5 d, 58″  – Volume V Victoria County History Of Lancashire Spotland p. 206-213

Coucher640

This charter also mentions Naden Brook and is a transcript from Volume III of the Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey, published by the Chetham Society in the 19th. Century.

Naden Brook

 

 

 

Naden Head – Holt’s Spotland Manor House

By the 16th. Century the land at Naden had been aquired by a member of the Holt family,  and the hall there was known as Naden Head.

Naden Head -1626 Manor Survey of Rochdale

Nadenland

“In a deed of partition in 1534 part of the land is called Nadenland in Spotland, Thomas Holt and Ralph Naden being tenants; Robert Holt paid 6d. for the attachment of a mill in Wolstenholme, and there were other messuages and lands in Spotland and Hundersfield; Raines D. in the Chetham Library.”

‘Townships: Spotland’, A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5 (1911), pp. 206-213 footnote 33. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53029 Date accessed: 18 August 2010.

Naden Head

The site of the hall and outbuildings (it was later a farm) can still be seen, there is more about Naden Head  here.

Read more about the Naden family name here.

Natt Bank, Meeting Place for  the Manor Court of Spotland

Natte Bank was in Bamford, a detached township of Middleton Parish. Yet this was the place that Holt’s Manor Court met in the 16th Century. The minor name Natt Bank can be found in the 19th. C. first series OS maps of the area.

Aerial View of  Natt Bank.

Here, east of Crimble Lane.

The Claim to The Manor of Spotland

Since Whalley Abbey held so much land in Spotland in the medieval period they claimed the rights to the manor of Spotland and came into conflict with the manor of Rochdale on one occasion. After the dissolution of the monastereies, the Abbey land in Spotland was aquired by a member of the Holt family. They continued to claim the rights to the Manor of Spotland and it is clearly recorded in the Rochdale Manor Court Records that Holt held his court a Natt Bank, overlooking the river Roche and in Middleton Parish. Natt Bank was to just the South of Spotland, but not in Rochdale Parish.

It gave a name to the immediate holders. Maud widow of Thomas de Naden claimed dower in a messuage and land in Wolstenholme in 1277 against Roger son of Robert de Naden; De Banco R. 21, m. 5 d, 58
Published in: on August 21, 2009 at 3:16 pm  Comments (5)  
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Medieval Whitworth

There are nearly 100 medieval charters relating to Whitworth in the Coucher Book of Whalley (that’s a lot!). With additional Medieval Whitworth documentation in deeds and court records, this area is of great interest in the study of medieval South East Lancashire.  The large number of charters make it possible to trace medieval boundaries in the fields and moorland around Whitworth.

“Time out of mind”

Whitworth was manor, though it was part of Spotland township in the Parish of Rochdale. Around 1200 it was stated that since  “Time out of mind” the Manor of Whitworth was held jointly between John Elland and Robert Liversedge, both lived in the West Riding of Yorkshire. In the Domesady Book Gamel, an ancestor of John Elland held Rochdale later replaced as overlord by a Norman. However Gamel kept some land and this accounts for John Ellands holding, the other, Robert Liversedge was descended from a vassal of the Norman overlord de Lacy. Just as the overlord granted land to his vassals his vassals did the same, breaking up landholding into smaller parcels. But even in the 12th Century there were many people able  to grant land in Whitworth, Jordan of Comb granted land to Whalley Abbey, for example, but there were many others.

Sokemen and Settlement in Spotland

Sokemen were generally freeholders who could buy and sell land and have land inherited. At least two landholdings were held in “sokeage” in Spotland and were recorded in Wolstenholme and Dunnishbooth, south Whitworth (both in Spotland township, Rochdale Parish) in the 16th and 17th centuries.
This is an indication of a tenure often, but not exclusively,  associated with the Danelaw and can perhaps explain the number of charters in Whitworth recorded in the Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey.

If there were many sokemen in Whitworth, they would have each been able to trade land with Whalley Abbey and inherit land, so this could explain the number of Whitworth transactions that appear in the Coucher Book.

Great Potential

After the medieval period we have detailed 16th Century and 17th. Century records, such as manor surveys and parish records, this is a great area to study the medieval landscape and how it evolved.

Search for Medieval Places

Early Ordnance Survey maps of Whitworth can be found here at British History Online. Early maps are held in library local studies, and also Whitworth Museum. Aerial Photographs can be seen on Google Earth and Lancashire’s own Mario as well as English Heritage’s archive of photographs.

See Raines

The Raines Manuscripts in Chethams Library (Manchester) contain a lot of Whitworth references:

For example E.4.5-E.5.2 bundle no. 1 (13th. to 14th C. deeds).

Overland Court

A later entry in the Coucher book mentions that a yearly court was held for Rochdale  (including Whitworth) tenants of Whalley Abbey at a place called “Overland” location unknown.

Medieval Land Transfer

C. D. King’s 1991 thesis includes a detailed chronology of medieval Whitworth land transfers, details can be phone on another of my posts, here.

Extracts from the Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey

Medieval Whitworth (Whiteword, in these medieval records) : places transcribed from the Coucher book of Whalley Abbey

Whitworth Place-names

WhitworthPlacesAC

Bikeden, for example, is modern day Bagden on the East of what is today known as Rooley Moor.

WhitworthPlacesCK‘Kor lacus’ translates to lake Kor (Old Welsh perhaps?), which was at Harsenden near Prickshaw. probably on the site of Prickshaw Dams.

WhitworthPlacesLSModern Prickshaw was ‘Prikkeschagh’, in the Medieval Latin of the Coucher Book of Whalley.

WhitworthPlacesStoY

Note

Yrifford was probably on the Roche near Chadwick and not in Whitworth. Ford means it was a river crossing point.

 Scandinavian place-name elements

Some examples are:

  • Booth or both (as in Bothestudyerdh for example) often associated with a farm or vaccary (cattle ranch)
  • Rakes or rakis (lane, track)
  • Scholes or skole, hut or barn
  • Sike or sik (ditch)
  • Slack – valley

Whitworth Personal Names

This index covers all four volumes and is taken from the index of Volume IV.

Latin abbreviations – de means of,  fils. means son and frat. means brother or family member.

Contents pages (Volume III) relating to Whitworth

Volume III holds many (but not all) charters relating to Whitworth here are the contents pages, translated into English.

655-679

CoucherWhtwrthnames

whitwortCouchr655679

Note

The “us” in the translation above refers to the Abbey.

Under construction..

(c) SMM 2009

Medieval Spotland Places and People Mentioned in the Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey

Spotland places mentioned in the Coucher Book

Spotland places mentioned in the Coucher Book

Spotland names continued...

Spotland names continued...

Spotland, in NW Rochdale, was one of  four townships of Rochdale parish and included Whitworth, Healey and Naden. This area is mentioned in a large number of medieval charters from the Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey.

There were many small freeholders who gave land to the Abbey. These small farmsteads typified settlement in the area, which was perhaps not as sparsely populated as some histories have claimed. Certainly the creation of remote assarts, such as Birchen Holts in the 16th Century, indicate that even by this time land was in short supply and marginal land was being reclaimed.

“Naueden” is modern Naden, spelling was not only very different but inconsistent too. Yrefford was also written as Irifford and was a ford on the river Roche which was probably originally called “”Yre” or” Irre”.

Spotland Personal Names

names1

Published in: on April 15, 2009 at 4:45 pm  Leave a Comment  
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Medieval Deeds from Chetham’s Library

headeed

Many medieval Latin documents from Lancashire remain to be translated. These documents are a little-known treasure chest for the medieval history of the region, Chetham’s Library houses many medieval documents in the medieval former manor house of Manchester.

An aerial/map view of Chetham’s is here.

The deeds below are an example of this rich archive, they are reproduced with the permission of Chetham’s Library

These deeds and many others are mentioned in the CD of the Raines manuscripts scanned by Peter Davenport of the family history Society of Cheshire, great work! Read more about this here.

These deeds refer to land in Spotland, a township in the north-west of the large medieval Parish of Rochdale, in south-east Lancashire. They are part of the large collection of deeds in the Raines Collection, just one of the many unique collections held at Chetham’s.  Special thanks to Fergus for making these scans.

Witnesses

At the bottom of the deeds can be seen the names of the witnesses, usually local landowners.For example, Gilbert de Notton as well as witnesses from Clegg (“de cleg”) and Falinge (“de phalleng”) can be seen in this deed:  raines_e45_bundle1_04.jpg.

Note: These are large files, they may take a while to download.

Download scanned deeds  relating to Spotland, Rochdale from the Raines Collection, Chetham’s Library

Want More?

We are hoping to run some projects in the future, please comment if you are interested.

If you plan to translate these please send me the information so I can link to your translations, thanks.

Published in: on February 8, 2009 at 10:45 pm  Comments (4)  
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